Highest PPRV genome excretion value was obtained in rectal swabs followed by nasal swabs and lacrimal swabs. Wernike K, Eschbaumer M, Breithaupt A, Maltzan J, Wiesner H, Beer M, Hoffmann B. Vet Microbiol. Parida S, Muniraju M, Altan E, Baazizi R, Raj GD, Mahapatra M. Emergence of PPR and its threat to Europe. Wohlsein P, Saliki J. Rinderpest and peste des petits ruminants - the diseases: clinical signs and pathology. All the samples were screened for viral genome detection by qRT-PCR. In the absence of an adequate immune response the virus infects the major systems including the CNS. 2013;165:38–44. Please enable it to take advantage of the complete set of features! Viral genome detection was performed using primer and probe described by Batten [37]. 2), trachea was congested and mesenteric and pulmonary nodes were enlarged and hypertrophied. NIH The severity score is a cumulative value of each criteria score, previously multiplied by the coefficient of significance. PubMed  PPR virus (PPRV) and rinderpest virus (RPV) are closely related Morbilliviruses. 2005;28:287–96. The lungs were red with area firm to touch, mainly in the anterior and cardiac lobes (Fig. CAS  Following inoculation with PPRV, four goats of the two groups showed typical PPR signs from 4 dpi, i.e. 2014;9:1–13. Group I (goats 1 and 2) was infected by cell virus suspension and group II (goats 3 and 4) by infectious mashed tissue (lung and mesenteric node), both from the same isolate. Briefly, each 25 μl reaction contained 4 μl extracted RNA; 12.5 μl of 2x SensiFAST Probe Lo-ROX One-Step Mix; 0.5 μl probe (10 μM); 1 μl (10 μM) forward and reverse primer and 6 μl nuclease free water. 2012;160:240–4. For goats 1 and 2 of group I we observed congestion and hepatization lung, hypertrophy of mesenteric and pulmonary nodes, and one goat presented mild inflammation of intestine (Fig. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. PPR virus (PPRV) causes severe clinical signs in its acute form and signs severity depends on the species, age, strain virulence and secondary infectious agents [11,12,13,14]. The incursion, persistence and spread of peste des petits ruminants in Tanzania: epidemiological patterns and predictions. Cite this article. BMC Vet Res 15, 452 (2019). Clinical signs of infection were present, pyrexia, serous-mucopurulent nasal discharges, coughing, diarrhea and asthenia, for both cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue. Albina E, Kwiatek O, Minet C, Lancelot R, Servan de Almeida R, Libeau G. Peste des petits ruminants, the next eradicated animal disease? Each goat of the two inoculated groups was infected by two different routes of inoculation, 1 ml via intravenous (IV) route and 1 ml via intra-nasal (IN) spray. Vaccine. Kgotlele T, Macha ES, Kasanga CJ, Kusiluka LJ, Karimuribo ED, Van Doorsselaere J, Wensman JJ, Munir M, Misinzo G. Transbound Emerg Dis. The body temperature of two goats of group III 5 and 6 used as unvaccinated controls, remained normal and do not exceed 39,4 °C. 1). El Harrak M, Touil N, Loutfi C, Hammouchi M, Parida S, Sebbar G, et al. In this study, experimental infection in two groups of goats with PPR MOR15, belonging to lineage IV, isolated locally in 2015 was performed and the resulting pathogenesis was evaluated using real time RT-PCR [24]. Use of Animals In Research And Education. Medawar and Medawar KT participated in the design and the follow up of the study. Experimental peste des petits ruminants (goat plague) in goats and sheep. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. Death may occur from severe diarrhoea, sometimes hasten by concurrent diseases. statement and PPRV genome was not detected by PCR for all samples collected swabs and viremia of two goats of group III. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of goats using a lineage IV virus, the most dominant in the world originated from Asia. In spite of the importance of PPR as the priority disease for eradication, very few studies have been dedicated to describe infection kinetic in the animal body [20, 25,26,27,28]. This study results indicates clearly that PPR is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days invade all vital organs. Infection was carried out according to international guidelines described for the care and handling of experimental animals, chapter 7.8 of the Terrestrial Animal Health Code and Directive 2010/63/UE of the European commission [32, 33]. This study evaluates the tissue tropism and pathogenesis of PPR following experimental infection of sheep and goats using a quantitative time-course study. J Infect Dis. Virus excretion begins during the incubation stage, before the appearance of the first clinical signs, and can last up to over 2 months following recovery, as has been observed in goat faeces. Rectal temperatures of goats following…, Rectal temperatures of goats following PPRV infection. Find NCBI SARS-CoV-2 literature, sequence, and clinical content: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/sars-cov-2/. The first detection of antibody seroconversion were detected from 6 dpi for one animal of group II with a 1.02 log10 value of antibody neutralizing titer by VNT. Esolen L, Ward B, Moench T, Griffin D. Infection of monocytes during measles. The clinical signs were observed and goats were euthanized at predetermined clinical score level for post-mortem examinations and PPRV detection by RT-PCR. Privacy 2016;142:16–21. Vet Microbiol. The experimental PPRV-infection model using the cell virus suspension is suitable for vaccine evaluation as a standard model. Six local breed goats, males, aged 6 to 9 months, of around 30 Kg, are arranged to three groups of 2 goats each. The PPRV contaminates animals through their oral and nasal passages. With our strain we did not observed any lesions at buccal mucosa. The PPR Moroccan virulent strain MOR15 strain used for the experiment was isolated at MCI Santé Animale laboratories, during the 2015 outbreak in Morocco from a lamb showing characteristic clinical signs of PPR and it belonging to lineage IV [24]. Interests: peste des petits ruminants virus, PPRV, FMDV, vaccines, pathogenesis of PPRV. Arch Virol. PPR is stand for Pestis des pestitis ruminants. Experimental studies on immunosuppressive effects of peste des petits ruminants (PPR) virus in goats. The economic impact of eradicating peste des petits ruminants: a benefit-cost analysis. Onderstepoort J Vet Res. 2017;98:2635–44. We confirm in our study the high virulence of the used 2015 Morocco strain (mortality up to D10) comparatively to the 2008 Morocco strain for which mortality occurs later (up to D33) [31]. Epub 2020 Aug 21. Cell culture is always preferable to tissue because of purity concern and known titre. Part of Increasing body temperature was reported in group I at D5 pi with a maximum at D7pi while in group II hyperthermia started at D2 at to D7 pi. Goats were fed a complete balanced diet and water ad libitum and housed in animal boxes (Biosecurity level 3 containment) at MCI Santé Animale. Goats are usually known to be more susceptible to the disease. Prevalence and distribution of peste des petits ruminants virus infection in small ruminants in India. specific for nucleocapsid (N) gene. The two goats 3 and 4 of group II (tissue virus) developed hyperthermia for 8 days, a peak at D4 at 40.9 °C; 7 and 6 days up to 40 °C for each goat. Virus isolation could be done on swabs or lung tissue. On live animals early diagnostic may be easily done on lacrimal swabs, rectal swabs show the lowest Ct. The authors declare that they have no competing interests. BMC Veterinary Research Virus pathogenesis and genetics www.freelivedoctor.com Slideshare uses cookies to improve functionality and performance, and to provide you with relevant advertising. dual infection of PPR and goatpox in indigenous goats was earlier reported in central India [11]. Peste des petits ruminants (PPR) is a viral disease of major economic importance on small ruminants. Animals were partially exsanguinated by jugular catheterization. The mortality rate is 90-100%, and the morbidity rate may reach up to 100%. 1998;28:233–40. Furthermore, PPR is … Google Scholar. Adult animals can carry the virus with mild or no signs, which represent a constraint for diagnostic and surveillance. This site needs JavaScript to work properly. Correspondence to Yanagi Y, Takeda M, Ohno S. Measles virus: cellular receptors, tropism and pathogenesis. Pathological and Immunohistochemical study of experimental Peste des Petits ruminants virus infection in goats. A vaccine is used where the disease is established and it provides good immunity. The blood samples were directly used for RNA extraction. All of the immune cells (lymphocytes, macrophages, reticular cells) can be a target for virus multiplication. The authors gratefully acknowledge the support for this study by MCI (Multi-Chemical Industry) Santé animale. -. Results of this study indicates that PPRV is an invasive infection in animals that in a short period, less than 10 days, invade all vital organs. KEYWORDS: Spectrochemical-Assay, PPR virus, MTT assay, Plaque assay, Trypan blue assay. In our study, we demonstrated that experimental infection could reproduce typical PPR signs in young susceptible goats using a virulent strain, administered by the natural route of infection IN route associated with IV route. Jones BA, Rich KM, Mariner JC, Anderson J, Jeggo M, Thevasagayam S, et al. Goats of unvaccinated group remain seronegative for both VNT and bELISA. 2017;59:1–6. Transmission to naïve animals may starts 2 days after infection and last for certainly more than 2 weeks as in this study animals died quickly. Kivaria FM, Kwiatek O, Kapaga AM, Swai ES, Libeau G, Moshy W, et al. There are no medications available to treat the disease, but supportive treatment may decrease mortality. Springer Nature. Each criteria has a coefficient of significance (5 point for criteria 1, 4 point for criteria 2, 3 point for criteria 3, 2 point for criteria 4 and 1 point for criteria 5). 2). The pathogenesis associated with PPR virus (PPRV) has largely been assumed from that established for closely related viruses such as rinderpest virus (RPV), measles virus and … 2014 Aug 6;172(1-2):140-5. doi: 10.1016/j.vetmic.2014.05.010. INTRODUCTION In vitro cell culture system is a useful alternative to animal based research including drug effect study or pathogenesis of intracellular pathogen particularly virus, chlamydia and rickettsia. It warrants appropriate control measures since goatpox virus can be of threat [14] and exhibits change in host speci-ficity and pathogenesis [9,15]. After washing the wells of the plates with PBS, 100 μl of an Monoclonal antibody C4F3 & conjugate anti-mouse was added to fix the remaining free epitopes. Swabs and tissues showed high charge of the virus and clinical signs dominated by pulmonary attack and digestive symptoms secondary. 2013;8:e55830. Clipboard, Search History, and several other advanced features are temporarily unavailable.  |  The viral stock was passaged 8 times in Vero (African green monkey kidney cells, ATCC No.CCL-81). Results presented are average temperature of four goats infected with cell virus suspension and infectious mashed tissue, signs and lesions observed on goats. Animals were randomly chosen from MCI Santé Animale breeding farm located at Sidi Yahya Zaer in North-West region of Morocco Animals. Lung is the preferred source of virus among all other tissues for virus detection and isolation. These periods of silent virus presence, without any visible clinical signs, increase the risk of disease spread to other small ruminants, and to dromedaries. Title: Viral pathogenesis 1 Viral pathogenesis. The temperature reached 40.5 °C at D7 and D4 for group I and 2 respectively. Animals evaluated positive by VNT were confirmed by bELISA. Infection chronology, virus circulation, and the disease early detection need to be better understood. This book offers a timely and comprehensive review of essential research on Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus (PPRV), ranging from its historical distribution, molecular epidemiology, genome structure, viral proteins, immunity, viral pathogenesis, clinical and molecular diagnosis to advances in vaccine developments and future challenges.
2020 pathogenesis of ppr virus